July 7, 2016

Whitepaper: Dynamic News Production, Dynamic News Networks

Vision Document

Description: Content personalization and virtual content networks

Title: Dynamic News Production, Dynamic News Networks

Author: Finbar O’Hanlon


This document provides a high level overview of how the Linius technology addresses solving some of the challenges facing the Global Broadcast News Ecosystem today.

This document will articulate the usage of virtualization extension of the NewsML language and standard using Digital Content 2.0 a new virtualized video file format where the picture tiles and frames reside in a source or origin location. Linius helps enable a Virtual News Network, in order to provide a more flexible, adaptable, valuable and dynamic news network.

A network that is Virtual, provides a faster content workflow, and faster time to market, a network that easily allows for individually programmed news production, and a network that is agile in adapting to constantly changing consumer viewing habits.

We call this, the “Virtual News Network.”

The Problem

Today the work of journalism can be done from anywhere and done well. It requires no more than a reporter and a laptop. In that way, journalistic authority seems to have become more individual and less institution-based. As such journalistic work be done from anywhere and by anyone


  • The line between the reader and writer has blurred.
  • The distinction among tweet, blog post, Facebook, newspaper story, magazine article, and book has blurred.
  • The line between professionals and amateurs has blurred, and a variety of "pro-am" relationships has emerged.
  • The boundaries delineating for-profit, public, and non-profit media has blurred.
  • Within commercial news organizations, the line between the news room and the business office has blurred.
  • The line between old media and new media has blurred, practically beyond recognition

Online news has also changed the geographic reach of individual news stories, diffusing readership from city-by-city markets to a potentially global audience

The internet era has transformed the popular understanding of news. Because the Internet allows communication, which is not only instantaneous, but also bi- or multi-directional, it has blurred the boundaries of who is a legitimate news producer or news journalist.

Social media sites, especially Twitter and Facebook, have become an important source of breaking news information and for disseminating links to news websites. Twitter declared in 2012: “It’s like being delivered a newspaper whose headlines you’ll always find interesting – you can discover news as it’s happening, learn more about topics that are important to you, and get the inside scoop in real time.” Cell phone cameras have normalized citizen photojournalism.

In todays multi device, distributed video ecosystem, news audiences as with all content audiences are shifting from traditional broadcast news networks to digital platforms.

Because of this accessibility everywhere, every time, the consumption of content is continually accelerating. With the advent of handheld portable cameras in cellphones, content creation is rapidly accelerating so much so now everyone with a cellphone can be a journalist.

A recent news story containing Hugh Jackman rescuing his son from Bondi Beach was filmed on a cellphone and recently sold to a major news network for $300,000 AUD, events like the Boston Bombing has highlighted this change in social capture and distribution as it was captured by audiences on the Scene and content was distributed to social networks like reddit first.

The shift in being able to access content fast on any device close at hand is where the audience gravitates today, especially when Major events take place.

The proliferation of different networks focusing on different news segments like finance or world news, demonstrate that the audience appetite for news that's tailored to them is alive and thriving. When it comes to broadcast Video

It is not uncommon for an individual to channel surf or switch platforms for different sources of information.

The change in the way people communicate today, causes downward pressure on organizations reliant on communication but those with a workflow cemented in yesterday. Organizations are always looking to create value in the products or services they provide but this becomes increasingly hard in a content ecosystem overflowing with a sea of content. Content all fighting for our attention.

As a consumer with infinite content choices on an array of content devices, access is no longer the issue. It’s relevance.

A byproduct of the overflow of content is the shortened attention span of today’s viewer. Because of this shorter attention span and access to multiple types of content, viewing habits have shifted from long form content (Movies and Shows) to include User Generated content (YouTube) and eventually social content i.e. 2 to 9 second Snack-able pieces of content (Snap chat and Vine). All of these content choices today are powered by video that is pre-produced or rendered by someone other than the viewer with a viewpoint of the creator or producer.

Viewers all have different ideas on what is relevant when it comes to content. It's a complex puzzle that can be largely overcome with smart data intelligence however it is impossible to overcome using the workflow of rendered content.

“With competition for eyeballs rife, and audiences shifting across networks it has never been more important that to look to innovation in driving engagement and value.”


The Solution



The Virtual News Network

The Virtual News Network provides a virtual interface to globally connected content publishers. From News Crews, News Agencies to Mobile journalists and pieces of User Generated content. The Virtual News Network stands apart from existing networks because all of the content in the network is virtual, i.e. all content is indexed and not pushed around a network, and rendered every time a an edit or package is required.
News networks that utilize digital files currently have to deal with rendered media files. These files are also known as Digital Content 1.0 files require multiple stages of file transport, huge amounts of storage and huge cost in processing video in order to tailor the package to suit a territory, broadcaster or individual.

Even with packaging standards such as NewsML rendered content requires laborious amounts of workflow processes in order to shape the content in a way to suit the package and audience. NewsML goes a long way to standardizing the way news packages are delivered but does not address being able to dynamically assemble personalized packages on the fly to an individual.

Virtual Video or Renderless video files provide a world of video where fragments of media content pieces can be sourced and dynamically assembled for content personalization “instantly”. A process that does not require the infrastructure or workflow required today to transport, store, ingest, edit and transcode content in order to make it playable and relevant to an individual.

Digital Video and content is faster to work with, easier to manage and produce, easier to control, and it lowers the cost of scaling the network to manage the complexity of personally tailored news using rendered video files.

A Virtual news network is a network where the personalization of news content, to an individual or audience segment happens in a matter of seconds from capture to delivery.
The simple concept of editing content is designed to make content more relevant to an audience. When content is rendered to an individual, a render process is required. In todays digitally driven marketplace, a place where content can be viewed by 10’s of millions of people it is impossible to create 10/s of millions of rendered files with speed and without prohibitive cost. With Virtual content 10’s of millions of edits can happen from a single piece of content at less than a second per edit and without the cost associated with rendered content.

The Diagram above demonstrates how many files need to be created using a rendered video process. The above example is not only cumbersome it describes a single video output to 8 devices. With the complexity of edits sources, delivery formats rendered video provides a workflow that is slow and expensive, two parameters that hinder modern news production.

Below is a Diagram which highlights the processes removed by introducing Renderless content.

The Virtual news Network is:

A network that offers the News Creator or Content Capture Individual;

  • The simplicity of a drop box interface for content discovery and indexing,
  • A single source for content delivery and content security.
  • A single source for content licensing.


A network that offers the News Agency;

  • Scalability in accessing Mobile Journalism and User Generated content
  • Scalability in reducing the infrastructure required to aggregate this content
  • Scalability in providing tiered pricing based on territory, edit point selection
    and time to market.
  • Greater Licensee value by allowing content to be utilized in different ways.
  • Greater scalability in reducing the amount of packages required for the influx
    of content.


A network that offers the news publisher.

  • Greater flexibility in providing individually tailored content
  • Greater ability reduce cost in producing tailored content
  • Greater value out of Agency licensed content via more content choice for
    tailored content of channels.
  • Greater ability to compete with socially delivered news
  • Future proof the value of the entire network via premium product suites.
  • Greater ability to understand licensing ability of local user generated content

In detail

The Virtual News Network is a network underpinned by technology components provided by Linius, that provides dynamic workflows to organizations in the news ecosystems. Linius does this by providing a technology layer that enables packaging of individually relevant content prior to screen layout in seconds without the content having to exist inside the news network.

Virtual content is content whose file structure has been indexed and mapped to a file containing mapping data that points to the original file. Content indexing is a term that describes the ability to identify content frames or edit points from remotely held content, index or map that content from different sources or locations and assemble a packaged story without ingesting the content into the network.

Virtualizing content provides scalability, speed and access in a manner that far outperforms traditional production techniques using rendered content.

Indexing content frames happens typically within one second. Production of virtual content packages is virtually instant as opposed to minutes or hours using rendered content. Virtual News networks allow data intelligence to drive a news package as another type of product and service that is highly flexible and fast for mediums including Television and the Internet.


Why a Virtual News Network ?

Virtual networks do not hold content they point to content.

Virtual News Networks can infinitely scale with little or no cost

Virtual Networks can make content instantly adapt to different devices or usage behaviors

Virtual News Networks can be driven by business rules engines as opposed to being limited by fixed content pieces

Virtual News Networks can search to a frame inside news footage material instantly

Virtual News networks can assemble content packages dynamically in seconds to produce individually tailored news packages.


Virtual News Networks are a subset of Virtual content networks.

Virtual content networks provide access to a global pool of content without having to push, store, and transcode digital content. They are networks of interconnected private clouds where content is secured by the owner in their private cloud, indexed by content aggregators and assembled at the users device. It's a virtually connected content ecosystem where content is at the speed of data and as dynamic as text for searching and personalization

Individually Personalized news

Individually Personalized news is just about packing the content in a more meaningful way to an individual. It is designed as a new premium way to package and deliver on demand news packages.

With all the news services available today, there exists a huge market segment that finds the content on these services or broadcasts uninteresting.

If people had a choice to have news the way they want, out of the combined aggregation of Agency delivered Global news aggregation, coupled with Local News gathering. The value of the network, platform or service would rise, just as the value of the license from the aggregator would rise. This would be an effect of having accessibility to more content choices, choices that are being utilized out of the agency package everyday.

A horizontal premium business unit can productize personalized news as an adjunct to local news for the audiences that are looking for a more relevant package.

Personalized news requires understanding of the viewer. Personalized news builds a stronger one to one relationship with the viewer which helps understand its viewers so as to better deliver more relevant products and therefore value into the future.

Personalized news is the ultimate premium news product. An ultimate McDonalds up sell I.E Do you want the meal deal, do you want large fries?

The reality is a lot of people will still tune into the 6 o’clock news because they have always done that and habits are hard to change, personalization in this case is a value added service or product.

Most business people, want to know what is happening in the business world and government decisions that affect business.

Providing a tailored news source saves channel surfing or platform surfing to get these different viewpoints, instead it offers a single destination and a single network for all that is news.

What’s important!!
The content already exists, it’s just as a viewer you just cannot access it.

Because the publisher, news group or news editor has the choice of selection not the viewer.

Aggregation maximization

Maximizing the usage of the Agency package maximizes the value of the license and maximizes the choice for viewers.


Virtual News (The Process)

1 Virtual News Journalism

Virtual News Journalism is the act of gathering news and providing this content to a news agency or publisher using a virtual workflow.

Virtual News journalism fulfills a dynamic process for newsgathering. Virtual News Acquisition opens a world of content from any source to be indexed and available for packaging and distribution without the traditional barriers imposed by rendered content i.e. transmission, storage and transcoding.

This process allows publishers or agencies to connect to frames of content within source footage in seconds and allows an infinite amount of scale in terms of content choice. Scale without the traditional cost of building infrastructure to deal with the onboarding of massive amounts of new content.

With Virtual news acquisition the only element ingested into the news network is the Video file index, which is approximately 1% of the original file size.

For virtual News Journalism to take place a private cloud needs to be in place hosted on a network that provides the speed and scalability required for the mass dissemination of the content but the privacy and security that a private lockbox provides.

This capability allows for any piece of content or frames within content to be always available for producing historical assembly of footage n seconds because of the is a process whereby Journalists, News Crews, User Generated content is uploaded to a Private cloud or Private Network edge storage locker, a storage locker who’s permissions are set by a number of business and usage rules ( , Broadcaster, Territory, etc.…)

For a virtual journalist to be able to virtualize their content the journalist requires a private cloud. Private clouds such as cloud or drop box are examples of private clouds however a dedicated media private cloud provided by the news agency or media provider with capable bandwidth to scale the content is required for content to be discovered, virtualized and delivered.. In the workflow below the journalists private cloud is highlighted in red where the news agency is in blue.


1.    The news journalist shoots content and or produces a news package. The can be everything from user generated content to a News team in a remote location.

2.   The news journalist logs into a publishing page of the news agency with account credentials.

3.   once authenticated the journalist enters in relevant media information regarding the footage, into fields provided by the news agency. These fields would include fields such as title, duration, event metadata and time of event e.g. car crash in 1 min 20 secs out 1 min 26 secs, licensing details, url of file on private cloud.

4.   Published data entered from the journalist is entered into the News Agency Content Management System.

5.   News agency uses published data and instructs Linius discovery Engine (which is housed in the news agency network) to virtualize the media content at the presented URL and make the virtual file available to the network

6.   Linius Discovery engine builds virtual file and adds the virtual file to the News Agency CMS.

7.   News Publisher who subscribes to the news feed from the news agency receives package of available content, with virtual content embedded.


Extending the diagram

8.   News Publisher previews the content by clicking on the virtual file or by playing preview on content management system presentation page.

9.   when playing content News Agency Content Management system uses Linius Engine to deliver Picture data from Journalists private cloud to the publishers interface through the news agency network.

10.   video news file is created at playback by the combination of virtual file and incoming picture and sound binary data.

2 Virtual News Aggregation by News Agency

News agencies provide news packages that contain multiple file types. Video, text, graphics and other content gets delivered to a subscriber or news publisher based on their subscription level. Often the content provided is of international mass appeal and content packages often contain many types of news stories that are not ultilized by the subscriber.

In these news packages there are pieces of content sourced from resources all over the world. Content is shot often on location edited and uploaded to the news agency which in turn ingests, edits and prepares this content for syndication. Speed is critical in providing news packages and those that do not have the ability to adapt to a multitude of incoming content formats or the agility to provide a package relevant to a specific subscriber face a huge challenge in being beaten out by social media. Social media is rapid at accessing the news and distributing the news globally at the click of a button.

This social accessibility has provided viewers with the ability to get real breaking news on any number of websites, websites which put downward pressure on the value of the subscription. Virtual content puts the ability to access content immediately without storing that content, an ability which solves the complex issues on understanding the rights of the content as the contents origin remains on a users private cloud. Virtual content allows for any number of edits without the time needed for rendering and allows for the story with edited content to be delivered to a news publisher without having to send the video file. The virtual video contains links to the frames required in the edit of the video on the journalists private cloud.

3 Virtual News Publishing

The Private cloud.

At the heart of a virtual content network is a private cloud. A private cloud provides the central origin point at which all content is stored and indexed from. It is a content owners lockbox hosted on a fast and scaleable network at which content can be virtualized or indexed from.
A Private cloud is a type of cloud computing that delivers similar advantages to the public cloud, including scalability and self-service, but unlike public clouds, which deliver services to multiple organizations, a private cloud is dedicated to a single organization or individual person.

As a result, private cloud is best for an individual with content or documents that require security or for businesses with dynamic or unpredictable computing, businesses that need direct control over their environments.

Public and private cloud deployment models differ. Public clouds, such as those from Amazon Web Services or Google Compute Engine, share a computing infrastructure across different users, business units or businesses. However, these shared computing environments aren't suitable for all businesses or individuals especially when it comes to personal content control or control over valuable resources where security is paramount. With a private cloud these businesses or individuals can provision a portion of their existing public cloud as a private cloud using the same resources or hosting environments.

A private cloud provides the same basic benefits of public cloud but In addition, private cloud offers hosted services to a limited number of people behind a firewall, so it minimizes the security concerns some organizations have around cloud. Private cloud also gives companies direct control over their data.

IN the world of virtual content a private cloud is a lockbox for content created by and individual that needs to capability to provide speed and scale to multiple discribution partners in accessing their content frames across a multitude of networks. In some cases a single network or distributor can create embedded private clouds within their organization allowing the ability for a content producer to deploy content frames securely across many networks but with the added security and flexibility that an embedded private cloud offers. An embedded private cloud uses and leverages the power of the larger cloud partner.

Rendered Content

Every digital video file or digital audio file you interact with today is rendered.

Rendered content is content created by software, content that has been digitally captured or edited. When that file is saved it is rendered into a file. This file is fixed it cannot be edited without re saving and therefore creating a new rendered file.

Different devices need files in their own language, which means saving copies of rendered files for different devices.

Because of this every capture, edit, scene, highlight and video advertisement is a new rendered file.

The result is millions of files a day being created that cannot be easily made relevant to an individual, files that block network traffic on their transport, require massive infrastructure to store, secure and manage.

“This is the way we treat video today”.

Virtual Content (Digital Content 2.0)

Digital Content 2.0 is also known as virtual content.
Virtual content can be edited and personalized without rendering.
The effect virtual content has on the entire workflow of video is as dramatic as the effect virtualization has had on other industries.
Products and services such as Uber, Air BnB and technologies such as Amazon AWS.

Uber is a virtual car service. It is the largest car company in the world and it does not own a car for its service, it is an interface to people’s underutilized infrastructure “ a car”. Air BnB is the largest property group in the world and it does not own a property. Air BnB is an interface to people’s underutilized resources “their house. Amazon AWS on the other hand virtualized computing power. It provided unlimited computing power and scale without the need for a company to buy the computing power let alone house and resource this power.

Virtual Video virtualizes video and content files. Virtual Video provides unlimited flexibility in the editing of content without the need for content to be present in the network or rendered into a new file. It provides power and scalability unmatched in providing targeted relevant content. Virtual Video is an interface to video frames buried inside remote video files.

The Virtual File (Explained)

Virtual News Networks run on Virtual Files.
Virtual or Renderless video files allow for the instant reconstruction of customized video packages without the need to render, store and transcode a new file. As such a News network or one that requires speed and agility in delivering a video message, especially when that video message can differ to a particular audience demographic, segment or territory.

News Networks today have content originating from different sources including news distributors, local news crews ENG, and Mobile Journalists (User Generated content) and have to deal with issues such as license and reporting information. The requirements get more and more complex everyday for news networks but these networks are driven on the value they can generate for their network and content.

“The more relevant a piece of content is, the more engaging it is.
The more engaging a piece of content is, the more valuable it is.
The more flexible the content is the easier it is to adapt to an audience.
The more adaptive the content is the more valuable it is.”
Virtual files eliminate a majority of processes rendered files require, which, speed up the productivity, reduce the costs and provide more engaging content packages.
Renderless files do not contain the video and audio components of the rendered video file, by not being rendered that are not fixed and are dynamic. (The Video and Audio Components of a video file are at least 95% of the file size).

E.g. Google maps are a virtual mapping service. Google maps use tiles that are rendered from maps created by 3rd party sources. When you zoom in the virtual map loads a new set of tiles based on the criteria required. These tiles are linked and assembled inside the parent map by loading internal data sources, much like virtual video. These maps are easy to navigate, have many easy options to print out or save your maps as well as place-marks for everyone else to view, such as those for businesses and landmarks.
If each map was pre rendered for every view required and every zoom state that increase in map files would be astronomical. This astronomical increase in maps has an astronomical increase in the requirements to store, re process these maps.

Video today is treated on an individually rendered level. I.e. a fixed viewpoint for every edit, scene and device, this models offers limited or no flexibility and an overload of files to achieve the same result as a virtual process provides.


The NewsML-G2 standard provides state-of-the-art XML format metadata to combine rich functionality, ease of use, compactness and compatibility with the Semantic Web. The Virtual News Network would provide a virtual layer below NewsML that could facilitate the delivery of news packages with virtual content.

NewsML provides core principles these include

The News Exchange

News Exchange is …

… a method of conveying not only the core news content, but also data that describe the content in an abstract way (i.e. metadata), information about how to handle news in an appropriate way (i.e. news management metadata), information about the packaging of news information, and finally information about the transfer of news content.

NewsML-G2 provides exchange formats for:

General news: textual news, articles, photos, graphics, audio and video can be exchanged – the News Item

A flexible mechanism for packaging news in a structured way – the Package Item. Information about concepts, used for values in controlled vocabularies – the Concept Item – and further a format to exchange full controlled vocabularies as a single file – the Knowledge Item

A means to convey editorial planning to customers – the Planning Item

A wrapper around items to transmit them by any electronic means – the News Message

NewsML-G2 is the cost-effective way of managing news, whether for a news provider, web site, news aggregator, newspaper or television station.

Exchanging News

NewsML-G2 can act as a sophisticated wrapper for news conveyed as text, photo, graphic, video, audio or other media type; it can also be used for packaging any combination of multimedia news.

Virtual news Networks extends the capability of news ML by providing a video wrapper for low level picture assembly of media content

NewsML-G2 makes strong use of terms from controlled vocabularies or taxonomies to describe and categorize the content; a promoted taxonomy is IPTC’s Media Topics.

Exchanging Event Data and News Coverage Planning

NewsML-G2 includes the EventsML-G2 specification for conveying event information in a news industry environment; this may be used for:

Receiving all facts about an event from the event organiser

Publishing all facts about a specific event by a news provider

Publishing full or partial event information as an event listing

Sharing the planned news coverage of an event by a news provider associated with the distributed event facts, e.g. for daybooks

Exchanging Sports Data

SportsML is the only open, global XML standard for the interchange of sports data. It allows for the exchange of sports scores, schedules, standings, and statistics for a wide variety of sports competitions. It may be used with NewsML-G2 as wrapper of the sport specific data. Its key features are:

Covers scores, schedules, standings, statistics, and more

Common framework for all sports

Plug-in modules for specific sports

Keeping it Simple

To Enable News networks in the personalization of content and the onboarding of content through different sources in Linius requires a new look at the BRS (Business requirement specification) in providing a number of new features

If extending the BRS and current build is possible the ability to adapt into Linius to work with complex ad exchanges, simpler ad publishing networks or with any method of content personalization is possible. These extensions will, in my opinion make it simple for Linius to work and integrate without very complex bespoke alterations to the system. The reason for this is I am treating Linius as an Engine that interfaces into the workflow rather than change the workflow.

A far simpler method would be to build everything internally but this would mean Linius would turn into a platform competing with other platforms.
Regardless Linius would be described as a Server Side Ad System not a client side in the methodology put forward in this document. Linius could quite easily work with a client side Ad server technology but it would be a hybrid model and outside the scope of this document because of time and availability of information.

Extending the Current BRS and build.

VQL Expansion

The Linius Video Query Language is a language used by the Linius API and SDK. This Language would need to be expanded in order to accept a time offset (or VED Video Edit Decision) in a standard format and be able to calculate the difference between the Video run time and match to the closest sample for Editing. Similar to SMPTE time-code already a standard across the world this time offset would allow incoming calls to the API to designate to start and stop events of ad insertion with a time code reference. Stop events are important in content personalization where a fragment of one piece of content is stitched in-stream into another. In this case the content would need a start and stop event in time-code.

The News Ecosystem

The News Agency

There are a number of processes covering the production of TV or video news. These processes sit within the boundaries of two major organizations that provide TV based news services.

1: The news agency

2: The news publisher or broadcaster

A news agency supplies this resource “wholesale” and publishers enhance it for retail.

News agencies are services, which compile news and disseminate it in bulk. Because they disseminate information to a wide variety of clients, who then repackage the material as news for public consumption, news agencies tend to use less controversial language in their reports. Despite their importance, news agencies are not well known by the general public. They keep low profiles and their reporters usually do not get bylines

A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters. A news agency may also be referred to as a wire service, newswire, or news service.

There are many news agencies around the world, but there are global news agencies with offices in most countries of the world and cover all areas of information: Agence France-Presse, Associated Press and Reuters. All three began with and continue to operate on a basic philosophy of providing a single objective news feed to all subscribers

Commercial newswire services (include)

  • ABN Newswire
  • African Press Organization
  • Asia Corporate News Network
  • Business Wire
  • CNW Group
  • CSRWire Canada
  • GlobeNewswire
  • Japan Corporate News Network
  • Marketwired
  • PR NewsChannel
  • PR Newswire
  • PR Web
  • Reuters

News is packaged information about current events happening somewhere else; or, alternatively, Stories with Mass global appeal. News moves through many different forms of media but in regards to video these delivery methods cover broadcast and Internet / carrier delivered services.

Journalism is a function of input to the news agency. It is the act or occupation of collecting and providing news and this function in regards to video can be accessed via a multitude of sources.

The main news agencies, and most reputable, are Reuters (RTV), AP (APTN) and AFP. There are a bunch of smaller and specialists like biz for example.

ITN, APTN and Reuters are global News Agencies /Distributors that have a pipeline of content that is made available to subscribers everyday from the library of content they are aggregating.

These Agencies have suppliers all over the work that they license the aggregation package of daily news, which is global to broadcasters like the nine network (Australia).

These agencies provide a pipeline of content everyday and then the subscribers (News Publishers) decide which pieces of that pipelined content of they choose to include in the daily news.

They go for the big and sensational to enhance their return by providing the sensational to organizations that require global news and package that news with local news.

The News Publisher

News Publishers present news packages to audiences.

News Publishers create news programs or news shows, which are regularly, scheduled programs that report current events. News is typically reported in a series of individual stories that are presented by one or more anchors. A news program can include live or recorded interviews by field reporters, expert opinions, opinion poll results, and occasional editorial content.

Television news programs refer to disseminating current events via the medium of television or broadcast video. A "news bulletin" or a "newscast" is television or content programs lasting from seconds to hours that provide updates on world, national, regional or local news events.

There are numerous providers of broadcast news content such as BBC News, NBC, CNN, Fox News, RT and Al Jazeera, as well as numerous programs that regularly provide this content such as NBC Nightly News. In addition to general news outlets, there are specialized news outlets, for example about sports (ESPNews, Fox Sports News, Eurosport News) and finances (CNBC, Bloomberg Television, Fox Business Network).
Newscasts, also known as bulletins or news program (me) s, differ in content, tone and presentation style depending on the format of the channel on which they appear, and their timeslot. In most parts of the world, national television networks will have bulletins featuring national and international news. The top-rated shows will often air in the evening during "prime time", but there are also often morning newscasts of two to three hours in length. Rolling news channels broadcast news content 24 hours a day. The advent of the internet has allowed the regular 24-hour-a-day presentation of many video and audio news reports, which are updated when additional information becomes available; many television broadcasters provide content originally provided on-air as well as exclusive and/or supplementary news content on their websites. Local news may be presented by standalone local television stations, stations affiliated with national networks or by local studios which "opt-out" of national network programming at specified points

The News Package

Packages will usually be filmed at relevant locations and edited in an editing suite in a newsroom or a remote contribution edit suite in a location some distance from the newsroom. They may also be edited in mobile editing trucks, or satellite trucks (such as electronic news gathering vehicles), and transmitted back to the newsroom. Live coverage will be broadcast from a relevant location and sent back to the newsroom via fixed cable links, microwave radio, production truck, satellite truck or via online streaming. Roles associated with television news include a technical director, floor director audio technician and a television crew of operators running character graphics (CG), Teleprompters and professional video cameras. Most news shows are broadcast live.

Extending the existing BRS and build.
VQL Expansion

The Linius Video Query Language is a language used by the Linius API and SDK. This Language would need to be expanded in order to accept a time offset (or VED Video Edit Decision) in a standard format and be able to calculate the difference between the Video run time and match to the closest sample for Editing. Similar to SMPTE time-code already a standard across the world this time offset would allow incoming calls to the API to designate to start and stop events of ad insertion with a time code reference. Stop events are important in content personalization where a fragment of one piece of content is stitched in-stream into another. In this case the content would need a start and stop event in time-code.


About Time-code

Time-code is a signal recorded onto video that uniquely identifies each frame on tape. When you capture video or audio in any program or edit suit, you also capture the time code signal, which is displayed in numbers on the display of the edit suit when you play back your clips. Time-code allows you to do exact edits at events in the video footage SMPTE time code (developed by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers), is represented in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames,

Discovery Engine: (Detect keyframe value).

Every digital file is encoded with what is called a keyframe.

A keyframe is basically a block of data representing a block of time i.e. 1 second. A Keyframe is similar to a photo frame, where all the color and luminance is captured. In MPEG there are other frames called P and B frames. These frames identify what is happening between keyframes and only updating information that has changed from the keyframe.

Detecting how a Digital File is encoded and the numbers of keyframes the files is encoded with is important as these keyframes give the ad insertion capability to point at which advertising gets inserted.

Below Diagram

1: Analog Video top grey layer has frames designated by black bars.
and the Middle color sections define events that happen within the video at Certain Times (Time-code).

2: The Bottom Layer consisting of small numbered boxes are the keyframes and there is a difference between the original videos frame or Time-code and the Keyframes.

What is VEP?

VEP is a name I have made up to describe a Video Edit Point, this is the point/s in the program material where the ad insertion happens. In the Broadcast world using time-code the term is EDL (Edit Decision List)

Content Introduction (Linius Discovery Engine)

*Note all content whether advertising of not, needs to be introduced to the Linius system in order to be virtualized. Virtualization provides Linius with the internal video file building blocks that allows for the rapid dynamic assembly of Linear Ad supported or personalized video.

Linius API connecting to Existing News Ecosystem

Jodi Cutler
Head of Media Marketing Linius
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